Numbers stations are shortwave radio stations of uncertain origin. They generally broadcast artificially generated voices reading streams of numbers, words, letters, tunes or Morse code. They are in a wide variety of languages and the voices are usually female, though sometimes male or children’s voices are used.

It has been reported that the United States uses numbers stations to communicate encoded information to persons in other countries. Others speculate that some of these stations may be related to illegal drug smuggling operations.

According to the notes of The Conet Project, numbers stations have been reported since World War I. They appear and disappear over time, although some follow regular schedules, and their overall activity has increased slightly since the early 1990s. This increase suggests that, as spy-related phenomena, they were not unique to the Cold War.

Numbers stations are often given nicknames by enthusiasts, often reflecting some distinctive element of the station such as their interval signal. For example, the “Lincolnshire Poacher” played the first two bars of the folk song “The Lincolnshire Poacher” before each string of numbers. “Magnetic Fields” plays music from French electronic musician Jean Michel Jarre before and after each set of numbers.


Bioelectromagnetism refers to the electrical, magnetic or electromagnetic fields produced by living cells, tissues or organisms. Examples include the cell membrane potential and the electric currents that flow in nerves and muscles as a result of action potentials.

It is an aspect of all living things, including all plants and animals. Some animals have acute bioelectric sensors and others, such as migratory birds, are believed to navigate in part by orienteering with respect to the Earth’s magnetic field. Also, sharks are more sensitive to local interaction in electromagnetic fields than most humans. Other animals, such as the electric eel, are able to generate large electric fields outside their bodies.

Bioelectromagnetism is associated with biorhythms and chronobiology. Biofeedback is used in physiology and psychology to monitor rhythmic cycles of physical, mental, and emotional characteristics and as a technique for teaching the control of bioelectric functions.

There are multiple categories of Bioelectromagnetism such as brainwaves, myoelectricity, and other related subdivisions of the same general bioelectromagnetic phenomena. One such phenomenon is a brainwave, where bioelectromagnetic fluctuations of voltage between parts of the cerebral cortex are detectable. This is primarily studied in the brain by way of electroencephalograms.


Salvia hispanica, commonly known as Chia, is a species of flowering plant in the mint family, Lamiaceae, that is native to central and southern Mexico and Guatemala. It was cultivated by the Aztec in pre-Columbian times, and was so valued that it was given as an annual tribute by the people to the rulers. It is still widely used in Mexico and South America, with the seeds ground for nutritious drinks and as a food source.

The word Chia is derived from the Nahuatl word “chian”, meaning oily. Chia is grown commercially for its seed, a food that is very rich in omega-3 fatty acids, since the seeds yield 25-30% extractable oil, mostly alpha-linolenic acid. It is also a source of antioxidants and a variety of amino acids.

Chia seed may be eaten raw as a dietary fiber and omega-3 supplement. Ground chia seed is sometimes added to pinole, a coarse flour made from toasted maize kernels. Chia seeds soaked in water or fruit juice are also often consumed and are known in Mexico as chia fresca. The soaked seeds are gelatinous in texture and are used in gruels, porridges and puddings. Ground chia seed is used in baked goods including breads, cakes and biscuits.

Chia sprouts are sometimes grown on porous clay figurines which has led to the popular U.S. cultural icon of the Chia Pet. Chia Pets are grown by applying moistened seeds of chia to the grooved terra cotta figurine body. Several Chia Pet animals are available, including a turtle, pig, puppy, kitten, frog, and hippopotamus.


Theurgy describes the practice of rituals performed with the intention of invoking the action or presence of one or more gods, especially with the goal of uniting with the divine. Theurgy means ‘divine-working’.

The source of Western theurgy can be found in the philosophy of late Neoplatonists, where the spiritual Universe is regarded as a series of emanations from the One. From the One emanated the Divine Mind and in turn from the Divine Mind emanated the World Soul. Neoplatonists insisted that the One is absolutely transcendent and in the emanations nothing of the higher was lost or transmitted to the lower, which remained unchanged by the lower emanations.

Plotinus urged contemplations for those who wished to perform theurgy, the goal of which was to reunite with The Divine. Therefore, his school resembles a school of meditation or contemplation. Iamblichus of Calcis, a student of Porphyry (who was himself a student of Plotinus) taught a more ritualized method of theurgy that involved invocation and religious, as well as magical, ritual. Iamblichus believed theurgy was an imitation of the gods that endowed embodied souls with the divine responsibility of creating and preserving the cosmos.

Iamblichus’ analysis was that the transcendent cannot be grasped with mental contemplation because the transcendent is supra-rational. Theurgy is a series of rituals and operations aimed at recovering the transcendent essence by retracing the divine ‘signatures’ through the layers of being.


The Gregorian solar calendar counts days as the basic unit of time, grouping them into years of 365+ and repeats completely every 146,097 days, which fills 400 years, and which also happens to be 20,871 seven-day weeks. Each “year” lasts exactly 365.2425 days, or 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes and 12 seconds.

To compensate for this anomaly, the Gregorian year is divided into twelve arbitrary months of irregular length, with no regular relationship among their lengths. English speakers sometimes remember the number of days in each month of the Gregorian year by the use of the traditional mnemonic verse Thirty days hath September.

A language-independent alternative used in many countries is to hold up the fists with the index knuckle of the left hand against the index knuckle of the right hand. Then, starting with January from the little knuckle of the left hand, count knuckle, space, knuckle, space through the months. A knuckle represents a month of 31 days, and a space represents a short month. The junction between the hands is not counted, so the two index knuckles represent July and August.

A similar mnemonic can be found on a piano keyboard: starting on the key F for January, moving up the keyboard in semitones, the black notes give the short months, the white notes the long ones.


Alstroemeria, commonly called the Peruvian Lily, is a South American genus of about 50 species of flowering plants. Almost all of the species are restricted to one of two distinct centers of diversity, one in central Chile, the other in eastern Brazil. All are long-lived perennials.

The plants are distinctive vegetatively, with a rootstock consisting of a slender rhizome. Storage roots consist of sausage-like water storing structures suspended from the rhizome by major roots. Each year up to 80 new shoots are produced from the rootstock and each terminates in up to 10 or so flowers.

An interesting morphological trait of Alstroemeria and its relatives is the fact that the leaves are resupinate, that is, they twist from the base so that what appears to be the upper leaf surface is in fact the lower leaf surface. This very unusual botanical feature is easily observed in the leaves on cut flowers from the florist.

The most popular hybrids commonly grown today result from crosses between species from Chile (winter-growing) with species from Brazil (summer-growing). This strategy has overcome the problem of seasonal dormancy and resulted in plants that are evergreen and flower for most of the year.


The capability to externally influence the contents of dreams with various stimulus during sleep is an ongoing area of study among dream researchers. Experiments have been made to determine which sense has the most power to evoke memory and emotion, and smell has been found to be the most potent stimulus for evoking memory and the emotions associated with it.

In one study, the participants were allowed to drift into sleep, and as they entered the REM phase (the period most associated with dreaming) the strong odor of either rotten eggs or sweet roses was wafted under their noses. A minute later the subjects were woken and asked about the nature of their dreams and how they felt.

It was found that the sleepers hardly ever dreamed of smelling something. Nevertheless, the emotional tone of the dream did change depending on the stimulation. The unpleasant smell changed the emotional content of the dream to mostly negative, while the scent of roses coloured the dreams with a positive glow.

Other studies have found that using smells during sleep can also have a powerful effect on memory. A group of researchers used the scent of roses on volunteers as they studied, and later as they slept. It improved their performance on a memory test by almost 15 per cent.


Automatic parallelization refers to converting sequential code into multi-threaded or vectorized code in order to utilize multiple processors simultaneously in a shared multiprocessor environment.

Though the quality of automatic parallelization has improved in the past few decades, fully automatic parallelization of sequential programs by compilers remains a grand challenge due to its need for complex program analysis and unknown factors such as input data range during compilation.

Gustafson’s Law is a law in computer science which states that any sufficiently large problem can be efficiently parallelized. Gustafson’s law addresses the shortcomings of Amdahl’s law, which does not scale the availability of computing power as the number of machines increase. It removes the fixed problem size or fixed computation load on the parallel processors.

Amdahl’s law, also known as Amdahl’s argument, is named after computer architect Gene Amdahl, and is used to find the maximum expected improvement to an overall system when only part of the system is improved. It is often used in parallel computing to predict the theoretical maximum speedup using multiple processors.


Galium aparine is an annual plant native to North America and Eurasia. It has several common names, including Bedstraw, Cleavers, Clivers, Goosegrass, Stickywilly, Stickyweed, Catchweed, Robin-run-the-hedge and Coachweed. The long stems of this climbing plant sprawl over the ground and other plants, reaching heights of 2-5 feet.

Both leaves and stem have fine hairs tipped with tiny hooks, making them cling to clothes and fur much like velcro. As they grow quite rampantly and thickly, they end up shading out any small plants that they overrun. The seeds are similar in size to cereal grains, and are a common contaminant in cereals since they are difficult to filter out. The presence of some seed in cereals is not considered a serious problem as they are not toxic.

When dried and roasted, the fruits of this plant can be used to make a coffee-like drink. The plant can also be made into a tea. Galium aparine was traditionally used to treat skin diseases. Herbalists use it to lower blood pressure and body temperature.

The whole plant is considered rich in vitamin C. Its roots produce a red dye, and the tea has been used as an anti-perspirant by the Chinese, and as a relief for head colds, restlessness, and sunburns. As a pulp, it has been used to relieve poisonous bites.

Bedstraw was widely used as a stuffing for mattresses during early medieval times from the 5th century through the 10th century. The densely paniculated flowers make for soft bedding.


Cognitive space uses the analogy of location in two, three or higher dimensional space to describe and categorize thoughts, memories and ideas. Each individual has their own cognitive space, resulting in a unique categorization of ideas. The dimensions of this cognitive space depend on information, training and a person’s awareness. All this depends globally on the cultural setting.

Many have tried to map in two or three dimensions various cognitive spaces. An attempt is made to place human perspectives within the global ecosystem and bridge real, ideal, and virtual spaces or realities along and across concrete scales. The concept is influenced by prior work with double augmented, merged and morphed realities.

A cognitive space consists of at least two elements: the actors involved and the cognitive element. They share cognitive matter (shared views, symbols, common language use, common ways-to-do-things, etc.). Actors are included in numerous spaces simultaneously and during social interaction in one space, they can access cognitive matter from other inclusions. This enriches the cognitive element of a space and can give birth to new cognitive spaces.

Cognitive spaces can be understood as workspaces of the mind. As such they are an elaboration on theories of social integration by enhancing concepts like social-cognitive configuration and multiple inclusion.