Psychology depicts love as a cognitive and social phenomenon. Psychologists have formulated a triangular theory of love and argued that love has three different components: intimacy, commitment, and passion.

Intimacy is a form in which two people share confidences and various details of their personal lives, and is usually shown in friendships and romantic love affairs. Commitment, on the other hand, is the expectation that the relationship is permanent. Passionate love is shown in infatuation as well as romantic love. All forms of love are viewed as varying combinations of these three components.

Following developments in electrical theories such as Coulomb’s law, which showed that positive and negative charges attract, analogs in human life were developed, such as “opposites attract.” Research on the nature of human mating has generally found this not to be true when it comes to character and personality, and that people tend to like people similar to themselves.

However, in a few unusual and specific domains, such as immune systems, it seems that humans prefer others who are unlike themselves, since this will lead to a baby that has the best of both worlds.

Some Western authorities disaggregate into two main components, the altruistic and the narcissistic. This view is represented in the works of Scott Peck, whose work in the field of applied psychology explored the definitions of love and evil. Peck maintains that love is a combination of the “concern for the spiritual growth of another,” and simple narcissism. In combination, love is an activity, not simply a feeling.


Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen present in common organic molecules. Some sources state that thirteen dietary minerals are required to support human biochemical processes by serving structural and functional roles.

Potassium is a systemic electrolyte and is essential in coregulating ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate, a transporter of chemical energy within cells for metabolism with sodium). Dietary sources include legumes, potato skin, tomatoes, and bananas.

Chloride is needed for production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and in cellular pump functions. Table salt is the main dietary source of chloride.

Sodium is a systemic electrolyte and is essential in coregulating ATP with potassium. Dietary sources include table salt, sea vegetables, milk, and spinach.

Calcium is needed for muscle, heart and digestive system health, to build bones, and support synthesis and function of blood cells. Dietary sources of calcium include dairy products, canned fish with bones (salmon, sardines), green leafy vegetables, nuts and seeds.

Phosphorus is a component of bones, cellular energy processing and many other functions. In biological contexts it is usually observed as phosphate.

Magnesium is required for processing ATP and for bones. Dietary sources include nuts, soy beans, and cocoa.

Zinc is pervasive and required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase.

Iron is required for many proteins and enzymes, notably hemoglobin. Dietary sources include red meat, leafy green vegetables, fish (tuna, salmon), eggs, dried fruits, beans, whole grains, and enriched grains.

Manganese is a significant cofactor in many enzyme functions.

Copper is a required component of many redox enzymes, including cytochrome.

Iodine is required for the biosynthesis of thyroxine.

Selenium is a cofactor essential in activity of antioxidant enzymes like glutathione peroxidase.

Molybdenum subsists in the oxidases. Xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and sulfite oxidase all contain significant quantities of molybdenum.


Theranostics is a term used to describe the proposed process of diagnostic therapy for individual patients. This involves testing for possible reaction to a new medication and tailoring a treatment based on the test results.

It encompasses the utilization of a wide range of subjects including predictive medicine, personalized medicine, integrated medicine and pharmacodiagnostics. The method is looked upon as the possible end result of new advances made in new drug discovery, molecular biology and microarray chips technology.

Although the use of the term Theranostics has been criticized as less than accurate, it is in line with today’s personalized approach to medicine, especially as it relates to cancer treatment. The stakes have never been higher to know that a drug therapy is working in real time than with cancer. Tumor responsiveness is critical to successful treatment and the term used to describe the process of making clinical treatment decisions mid-therapy in direct response to that precise therapy is Theranostics.

However, Theranostics is a confusing term and not understood by most professionals. There is no difficulty in describing this concept without using a special term, so if one needs to use a single word to describe a test linked to therapy, one can use pharmacodiagnostics, which is more appropriate and easy to understand.


A cancer survivor is an individual with cancer of any type, current or past, who is still living. About 11 million Americans alive today, or one in 30 people, are either currently undergoing treatment for cancer or have done so in the past. Nearly 65% of persons diagnosed with cancer are expected to live more than five years after the cancer is discovered.

Many cancer survivors describe the process of living with and beating cancer as a life-changing experience. It is not uncommon for this experience to bring about a personal epiphany, which the person uses as motivation to meet goals of great personal importance, such as climbing a mountain or reconciling with an estranged family member.

In October 1996, Lance Armstrong was diagnosed with testicular cancer, with a tumor that had metastasized to his brain and lungs. His cancer treatments included surgery and extensive chemotherapy, and his prognosis was originally poor. He went on to win the Tour de France each year from 1999 to 2005, and is the only person to win seven times.

In 1995, the Grammy-nominated American poet, activist and author Nikki Giovanni was diagnosed with lung cancer. Alive today, a 15-year survivor, she denies that her cancer has made her a better person, adding that “If it takes a near-death experience for you to appreciate your life, you’re wasting somebody’s time.”


Terror management theory is a theory within psychology that focuses on the implicit emotional reactions of people that occur when confronted with the psychological terror of knowing we will eventually die. Empirical support for terror management theory has originated from more than 175 published experiments which have been conducted cross-culturally both nationally and internationally.

The theory builds from the assumption that the capability of self-reflection and the consciousness of one’s own mortality can be regarded as a continuous source for existential anguish. This irresolvable paradox is created from the desire to preserve life and the realization of that impossibility because life is finite.

Humans are aware of the inevitability of their own death. Culture diminishes this psychological terror by providing meaning, organization and continuity to people’s lives. Compliance with cultural values enhances one’s feeling of security and self-esteem, provided that the individual is capable of living in accordance with whatever particular cultural standards apply to him or her.

The belief in the rightness of the cultural values and standards creates the conviction necessary to live a reasonable and meaningful life. This cultural worldview provides a base of making sense of the world as stable and orderly, a place where one rests their hopes on symbolic immortality such as having children, fame, or legacies of wealth, or literal immortality such as the promise of a life in an afterworld.


In psychology, preparedness is a concept developed to explain why certain associations are learned more readily than others. For example, phobias related to survival, such as snakes, spiders, and heights, are much more common and much easier to induce in the laboratory than other kinds of fears.

This is a result of our evolutionary history. Organisms which learned to fear environmental threats faster had a survival and reproductive advantage. Consequently, the innate predisposition to fear became an adaptive human trait. Because early humans that were quick to fear dangerous situations were more likely to survive and reproduce, preparedness is theorized to be a genetic effect that is the result of natural selection.

Fear can sometimes create the condition we commonly call disease. Realistically, mammals all develop disease throughout their lifetimes but they remain unaware of this fact because the immune system recognizes the threat and eliminates it. The long term effect of chronic fear on the immune system can be extremely damaging.

For some, becoming aware of fear and changing the response to it has brought about a lessening of disease. By taking a deep breath, pausing and reflecting, one can identify a negative belief system and replace it with a positive, loving belief system that can remedy problems before they escalate.


Spontaneous regression is an unexpected improvement or cure from a disease which is usually taking a different course. It is a term that is mainly used for unexpected transient or final improvements in cancer.

It has long been assumed that spontaneous regressions from cancer are a rare phenomenon, and that some forms of cancer are more prone to unexpected courses than others. Frequency is estimated to be about 1/100000, however, in reality this ratio might be largely underestimated. Not all cases of spontaneous regression can be apprehended, either because the case was not well documented, the physician was not willing to publish, or simply because the patient did not show up in a clinic any more.

For small tumors, the frequency of spontaneous regression was probably drastically underrated. In a carefully designed study on mammography it was found that 22% of all breast cancer cases underwent spontaneous regression.

In many of the collected cases, it must be acknowledged that the factors or mechanisms responsible for spontaneous regression are unknown in the light of present knowledge. In some of the cases, available knowledge permits one to infer that hormonal influences probably were important. In other cases, the protocols strongly suggest that an immune mechanism was responsible.


Binary opposition is a pair of terms or concepts that are theoretical opposites. In structuralism, a binary opposition is seen as a fundamental organizer of human philosophy, culture, and language. It is one of several influential characteristics or tendencies of Western thought. Typically, one of two opposites assumes a role of dominance over the other. The categorization of binary oppositions is often value-laden and ethnocentric with an illusory order and superficial meaning.

An example of a binary opposition is the presence-absence dichotomy. In much of Western thought, distinguishing between presence and absence is a fundamental element of thought in many cultures. In addition, according to post-structuralist criticisms, presence occupies a position of dominance in Western thought over absence, because absence is traditionally seen as what you get when you take away presence. Had absence been dominant, presence might have been seen as what you get when you take away an absence.

Deconstruction is the event or moment at which a binary opposition is thought to contradict itself and undermine its own authority. Although deconstruction can not explain how a rational basis for defending itself can then be maintained, it has removed any objective basis in structuralism it may have had.

The correspondence between each of the dominant Western concepts such as rational vs. emotional, mind vs. body, thought vs. writing, are claimed to show a tendency of Western thought called logocentrism. The critique of binary oppositions is an important part of post-feminism, post-colonialism, post-anarchism, and critical race theory, which argue that the perceived binary dichotomy between man/woman, civilized/savage, and caucasian/non-caucasian have perpetuated and legitimized Western power structures favoring “civilized” white men.


Genetic testing involves direct examination of the DNA molecule to detemine a person’s ancestry or vulnerabilities to inherited diseases. Genetic testing can provide only limited information about an inherited condition. The test can not determine if a person will show symptoms of a disorder, how severe the symptoms will be, or whether the disorder will progress over time.

The results of genetic tests are not always straightforward, which often makes them challenging to interpret and explain. Many of the risks associated with genetic testing involve the emotional, social, or financial consequences of the test results. The possibility of genetic discrimination in employment or insurance is also a concern. In the United States, the use of genetic information is governed by the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act.

Direct-to-Consumer genetic testing is a type of genetic test that is accessible directly to the consumer without having to go through a health care professional. Benefits of this type of testing are the accessibility of tests to consumers, promotion of proactive healthcare and the privacy of genetic information.

Some advertising for direct-to-consumer genetic testing has been criticized as conveying an exaggerated and inaccurate message about the connection between genetic information and disease risk, utilizing emotions as a selling factor. Consumers can potentially misinterpret genetic information, causing them to be deluded about their personal health.


Healing of the body is accomplished through restoration of damaged cells to normal function. It is the process by which cells regenerate and repair. Healing incorporates both the removal and replacement of damaged areas in the body.

Living organs will heal using a combination of regeneration and repair. Regeneration occurs when damaged cells are replaced by the same cell structure that was originally present. Repair is the process by which injured areas are replaced with scar tissue, a natural part of the body’s reaction to wounding or injury that is deeply correlated with healing.

In order for an injury to be healed by regeneration, the cell type that was destroyed will replicate. This process occurs by use of a cellular framework along which to grow known as collagen. Collagen is the main component of all connective tissue that guides cell growth. It continues to exist even when the cells around it are damaged.

The existing cells replicate, using the collagen framework as a guide, eventually bringing the damaged area of the body back to normal. After regeneration is complete, the damage to the original cell area is undetectable. Ultimately, a scar made of collagen containing a small number of assistive healing cells is left.