Kairos is an ancient Greek word meaning the right, opportune moment, or supreme moment. The ancient Greeks had two words for time, chronos and kairos. While the former refers to chronological or sequential time, the latter signifies a time in between, a moment of undetermined period of time in which something special happens. While chronos is quantitative, kairos has a qualitative nature.

According to ancient Greeks, Kairos was the god of the fleeting moment, a favorable opportunity opposing the fate of man. Such a moment must be grasped by the tuft of hair on the personified forehead of the fleeting opportunity, otherwise the moment is gone and can not be re-captured. This is personified on sculptures of the representative deity by the back of head being bald.

Kairos was central to the Sophists, who stressed the rhetor’s ability to adapt to and take advantage of changing, contingent circumstances. In Panathenaicus, Isocrates writes that educated people are those who manage well the circumstances which they encounter day by day, and who possess a judgment which is accurate in meeting occasions as they arise and rarely misses the expedient course of action.

Kairos is also very important in Aristotle’s scheme of rhetoric. Kairos is, for Aristotle, the time and space context in which the proof will be delivered. Kairos stands alongside other contextual elements of rhetoric: The Audience, which is the psychological and emotional makeup of those who will receive the proof; and To Prepon, which is the style with which the orator clothes their proof.


The American Alligator inhabits wetlands that frequently overlap with human-populated areas. They reach adulthood at about 10 years of age, at which time they are about 7 feet long. The oldest males may grow to be 16 feet and weigh up to 1,200 pounds during a lifespan of 30 or more years.

Adult alligators will eat wild boars, deer, dogs of all sizes, and livestock including cattle and sheep. The gizzards of alligators often contain gastroliths. The function of these stones is to grind up food in the stomach and help with digestion. This is important because alligators swallow their food whole. These gastroliths are also used in buoyancy control.

Alligators generally have a green, brown, or nearly black color with a creamy white underside. Algae-laden waters produce greener skin, while tannic acid from overhanging trees can often produce darker skin.

Although alligators have no vocal cords, males bellow loudly to attract mates by sucking air into their lungs and blowing it out in intermittent, deep-toned roars. Male alligators engage in infrasound bellowing with their midsection very slightly submerged, making the surface of the water sprinkle. Recently it was discovered that on spring nights alligators gather in large numbers for group courtship, known as “alligator dances”.


It has been suggested that people who are more grateful have higher levels of well-being. Grateful people also have higher levels of control of their environment, personal growth, purpose in life, and self acceptance. It has been demonstrated that people who were more grateful coped better with a life transition. Specifically, people who were more grateful before the transition were less stressed, less depressed, and more satisfied with their relationships three months later.

Gratitude has been said to have one of the strongest links with mental health of any character trait. In one study concerning gratitude, participants were randomly assigned to one of six therapeutic intervention conditions designed to improve the participant’s overall quality of life. Out of these conditions, it was found that the biggest short-term effects occurred when participants wrote and delivered a letter of gratitude to someone in their life.

This condition showed a rise in happiness and a significant fall in depression, results which lasted up to one month after the event. Out of the six conditions, the longest lasting effects were caused by the act of writing gratitude journals where participants were asked to write down three things they were grateful for each day. These participants’ happiness scores also increased and continued to increase each time they were tested periodically after the experiment.

In fact, the greatest benefits were usually found to occur around six months after treatment began. This exercise was so successful that although participants were only asked to continue the journal for a week, many participants continued to keep the journal long after the study was over.


Psychologists have addressed the hypothesis that fear of death motivates religious commitment, and that it may be alleviated by assurances about an afterlife. Research on this topic has been equivocal. People who are firm in their faith and attend religious services are the least afraid of dying. People who hold a loose religious faith are the most anxious, and people who are not religious are intermediate in their fear of death.

A survey of people in various denominations showed a positive correlation between fear of death and dogmatic adherence to religious doctrine. In other words, strict interpretations of the Bible are associated with greater fear of death. Furthermore, some religious orientations were more effective than others in allaying that fear.

Fear of death is also known as death anxiety. This may be a more accurate label because, like other anxieties, the emotional state in question is long lasting and not typically linked to a specific stimulus. The analysis of fear of death, death anxiety, and concerns over mortality is an important feature of existentialism and terror management theory.

While it is important to be aware of potential and real threats, it is just as important to react appropriately to them. For most of us, our initial startle response subsides as soon as we realize that there is no actual threat or danger. So when the fear of death is reduced, chance of dying also reduces exponentially.


Emergence is the way complex systems and patterns arise out of a multiplicity of relatively simple interactions. It has been described as the creation of novel and coherent structures, patterns and properties during the process of self-organization in complex systems.

Emergent properties appear when a number of simple entities operate in an environment, forming more complex behaviors as a collective. Unintended consequences and side effects are closely related to emergent properties. Common characteristics include features not previously observed in other systems, and integrated processes that maintain themselves over a period of time.

The internet is a popular example of a decentralized system exhibiting emergent properties. There is no central organization rationing the number of links, yet the number of links pointing to each page follows a power law in which a few pages are linked to many times and most pages are seldom linked to.

Another important example of emergence in web-based systems is social bookmarking, also called collaborative tagging. In these systems, users assign tags to resources shared with other users, which gives rise to a type of information organization that emerges from this crowdsourcing process.


The Red Mangrove is distributed in costal ecosystems throughout the tropics. It forms a characteristic saline woodland habitat called a mangrove swamp, growing on aerial prop roots which arch above the water level giving stands of this tree a characteristic appearance.

Because they are well adapted to salt water, they thrive where many other plants fail and create their own ecosystems called mangals. The roots act as an ultra-filtration mechanism to exclude up to 97% of the salts from the costal saline water. Salt which does accumulate in the plant concentrates in old leaves which the plant then sheds.

Red mangroves absorb air through pneumatophores, specialised root-like structures which stick up out of the soil like straws for oxygen intake. These “breathing tubes” typically reach heights of up to thirty centimeters, and in other species, over three meters.

Mangroves protect coastal areas from erosion and storm surge during hurricanes. The mangrove’s massive root system is efficient at dissipating wave energy. They slow down tidal water enough that sediment is deposited as the tide comes in, leaving all except fine particles when the tide ebbs. Because of the uniqueness of mangrove ecosystems and the protection against erosion that they provide, they are often the object of conservation programs.


The Axis Mundi describes a point of connection between sky and earth where the four compass directions meet. The symbol originates as a perception that the spot one occupies stands at the center of the world. It is found in cultures utilizing shamanic practices, in major world religions, and in technologically advanced urban centers. Every inhabited region has an Axis Mundi, a place that is sacred above all.

The space serves as a microcosm of order because it is known and settled. Outside the boundaries of the Axis Mundi lie foreign realms that, because they are unfamiliar or not ordered, represent chaos, death or night. From the center one may venture in any of the four cardinal directions, make discoveries, and establish new centers as new realms become known and settled.

A universally told story is that of the healer traversing the Axis Mundi to bring back knowledge from the other world. It may be seen in stories from the Garden of Eden and Jacob’s Ladder to Jack and the Beanstalk and Rapunzel. The stories relate the hero’s descent and ascent through a series of structures that take him from the depths of hell to paradise.

Because the Axis Mundi is an idea that unites a number of concrete images, places and landmarks, no contradiction exists regarding multiple spots as the center. The symbol can operate in a number of locales at once. The ancient Greeks regarded several sites as places of centering, notably the oracle at Delphi, while still maintaining a belief in a cosmic world tree and in Mount Olympus.


CQ or curiosity quotient is a term put forth by author and journalist Thomas Friedman as part of a formula to measure learning and acquisition of knowledge. His claim is that CQ (curiosity quotient) plus PQ (passion quotient) is greater than IQ (intelligence quotient).

There is no evidence that this inequality is true. Friedman may believe that curiosity and passion are greater than intelligence, but there is no evidence to suggest that the sum of a person’s curiosity and passion quotients will always exceed their IQ.

According to Friedman, curiosity and passion are key components for education in a world where information is readily available to everyone and where global markets reward those who have learned how to learn and are self-motivated to learn.

Friedman states, “Give me the kid with a passion to learn and a curiosity to discover and I will take him or her over the less passionate kid with a huge IQ every day of the week. IQ still matters, but CQ and PQ matter even more.”


The Clever Hans effect was identified in 1907 by psychologist Oskar Pfungst. He demonstrated that Clever Hans, a horse that was claimed to be able to perform arithmetic and other intellectual tasks, was actually observing the reaction of his human observers.

He discovered the effect during research into the validity of the phenomenon, and found that the horse was responding directly to involuntary cues in the body language of the human trainer, who knew the answer to each problem. However, the trainer was entirely unaware that he was providing such cues.

During the research, Pfungst discovered that he would produce the cues involuntarily, regardless of whether he wished to exhibit or suppress them. Recognition of this phenomenon has had a large effect on all experiments involving sentient subjects.

Clever Hans effects are quite as likely to occur in experiments with humans as with animals. For this reason, care is often taken to make experiments double-blind, meaning that neither the experimenter nor the subject knows what condition the subject is in, and thus what his or her responses are predicted to be.


Lycoism identifies the meaning of art with life-serving purpose. It refuses to polarize science and art, but seeks to unify aesthetics and ethics in works which involve the use of science and technology by the artist in the creation of beauty.

Concerning itself with cultural transformation and the human condition, Lycoism seeks to expand the boundaries of aesthetics. It is based on the idea of “Lyrical Conceptualism” developed by the Canadian painter and poet Paul Hartal.

Since science and technology impact so much of modern lifestyle, Lycoism views the relationship of art, science, and technology as a pivotal concern. It creates a conscious bridge between the impulsive, intuitional, and planned elements of the creative process. This process represents the interaction of emotion and intellect, where the passion of logic and the logic of passion are interwoven.

Hartal did not intend to form a new post-conceptualist splinter-trend. His intention was the creation of a new philosophy of art in which the tearing down of the boundaries between art and science, the interlacement of the intuitive and the exact, and incorporation of the lyrical and the geometrical play a central role.