It has been suggested that people who are more grateful have higher levels of well-being. Grateful people also have higher levels of control of their environment, personal growth, purpose in life, and self acceptance. It has been demonstrated that people who were more grateful coped better with a life transition. Specifically, people who were more grateful before the transition were less stressed, less depressed, and more satisfied with their relationships three months later.

Gratitude has been said to have one of the strongest links with mental health of any character trait. In one study concerning gratitude, participants were randomly assigned to one of six therapeutic intervention conditions designed to improve the participant’s overall quality of life. Out of these conditions, it was found that the biggest short-term effects occurred when participants wrote and delivered a letter of gratitude to someone in their life.

This condition showed a rise in happiness and a significant fall in depression, results which lasted up to one month after the event. Out of the six conditions, the longest lasting effects were caused by the act of writing gratitude journals where participants were asked to write down three things they were grateful for each day. These participants’ happiness scores also increased and continued to increase each time they were tested periodically after the experiment.

In fact, the greatest benefits were usually found to occur around six months after treatment began. This exercise was so successful that although participants were only asked to continue the journal for a week, many participants continued to keep the journal long after the study was over.


Radionics is the use of blood, hair, a signature, or other substances unique to the person as a focus to supposedly heal a patient from afar. The concept behind radionics originated in the early 1900s with Albert Abrams. Radionics is not based on any scientific evidence, and contradicts the principles of physics and biology.

According to radionics practitioners, a healthy person will have certain energy frequencies moving through their body that define health, while an unhealthy person will exhibit other, different energy frequencies that define disorders. Radionic devices purport to diagnose and heal by applying appropriate frequencies to balance the discordant frequencies of sickness.

In one form of radionics, some blood on a bit of filter paper is attached to a device Abrams called a dynamizer, which is attached by wires to a string of other devices and then to the forehead of a healthy volunteer, facing west in a dim light. By tapping on on his abdomen and searching for areas of “dullness”, disease in the donor of the blood is diagnosed by proxy. Having done this, the practitioner may use a special device known as an oscilloclast to broadcast vibrations at the patient in order to attempt to heal them.

Albert Abrams claimed to detect such frequencies and cure people by matching their frequencies. He developed thirteen devices and became a millionaire leasing his devices. The American Medical Association described him as the “dean of gadget quacks,” and his devices were definitively proven useless by an independent investigation commissioned by Scientific American in 1924.

Modern practitioners now conceptualize these devices merely as a focusing aid to a practitioner’s dowsing abilities, and claim that there is no longer any need for the device to have any demonstrable function. Indeed, Abrams’ black boxes had no purpose of their own, being merely obfuscated collections of wires and electronic parts.


Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen present in common organic molecules. Some sources state that thirteen dietary minerals are required to support human biochemical processes by serving structural and functional roles.

Potassium is a systemic electrolyte and is essential in coregulating ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate, a transporter of chemical energy within cells for metabolism with sodium). Dietary sources include legumes, potato skin, tomatoes, and bananas.

Chloride is needed for production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and in cellular pump functions. Table salt is the main dietary source of chloride.

Sodium is a systemic electrolyte and is essential in coregulating ATP with potassium. Dietary sources include table salt, sea vegetables, milk, and spinach.

Calcium is needed for muscle, heart and digestive system health, to build bones, and support synthesis and function of blood cells. Dietary sources of calcium include dairy products, canned fish with bones (salmon, sardines), green leafy vegetables, nuts and seeds.

Phosphorus is a component of bones, cellular energy processing and many other functions. In biological contexts it is usually observed as phosphate.

Magnesium is required for processing ATP and for bones. Dietary sources include nuts, soy beans, and cocoa.

Zinc is pervasive and required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase.

Iron is required for many proteins and enzymes, notably hemoglobin. Dietary sources include red meat, leafy green vegetables, fish (tuna, salmon), eggs, dried fruits, beans, whole grains, and enriched grains.

Manganese is a significant cofactor in many enzyme functions.

Copper is a required component of many redox enzymes, including cytochrome.

Iodine is required for the biosynthesis of thyroxine.

Selenium is a cofactor essential in activity of antioxidant enzymes like glutathione peroxidase.

Molybdenum subsists in the oxidases. Xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and sulfite oxidase all contain significant quantities of molybdenum.


Theranostics is a term used to describe the proposed process of diagnostic therapy for individual patients. This involves testing for possible reaction to a new medication and tailoring a treatment based on the test results.

It encompasses the utilization of a wide range of subjects including predictive medicine, personalized medicine, integrated medicine and pharmacodiagnostics. The method is looked upon as the possible end result of new advances made in new drug discovery, molecular biology and microarray chips technology.

Although the use of the term Theranostics has been criticized as less than accurate, it is in line with today’s personalized approach to medicine, especially as it relates to cancer treatment. The stakes have never been higher to know that a drug therapy is working in real time than with cancer. Tumor responsiveness is critical to successful treatment and the term used to describe the process of making clinical treatment decisions mid-therapy in direct response to that precise therapy is Theranostics.

However, Theranostics is a confusing term and not understood by most professionals. There is no difficulty in describing this concept without using a special term, so if one needs to use a single word to describe a test linked to therapy, one can use pharmacodiagnostics, which is more appropriate and easy to understand.


Genetic testing involves direct examination of the DNA molecule to detemine a person’s ancestry or vulnerabilities to inherited diseases. Genetic testing can provide only limited information about an inherited condition. The test can not determine if a person will show symptoms of a disorder, how severe the symptoms will be, or whether the disorder will progress over time.

The results of genetic tests are not always straightforward, which often makes them challenging to interpret and explain. Many of the risks associated with genetic testing involve the emotional, social, or financial consequences of the test results. The possibility of genetic discrimination in employment or insurance is also a concern. In the United States, the use of genetic information is governed by the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act.

Direct-to-Consumer genetic testing is a type of genetic test that is accessible directly to the consumer without having to go through a health care professional. Benefits of this type of testing are the accessibility of tests to consumers, promotion of proactive healthcare and the privacy of genetic information.

Some advertising for direct-to-consumer genetic testing has been criticized as conveying an exaggerated and inaccurate message about the connection between genetic information and disease risk, utilizing emotions as a selling factor. Consumers can potentially misinterpret genetic information, causing them to be deluded about their personal health.


The pistachio nut was first cultivated in Western Asia, where it has long been an important crop in cooler parts of Iran. It is a desert plant, and is highly tolerant of saline soil. The fruit has a hard, whitish exterior shell. The seed has a mauvish skin and light green flesh with a distinctive flavor.

The kernels are often eaten whole, either fresh or roasted and salted, and are also used in ice cream and confections such as baklava or biscotti, or cold cuts such as mortadella. Inhabitants of the American Midwest make pistachio salad, which includes fresh pistachios or pistachio pudding, cool whip, canned fruit and sometimes cottage cheese or marshmallows.

In December 2008, Dr. James Painter, a behavioral eating expert described the “Pistachio Principle”. It describes methods of fooling one’s body into eating less. One example used is that the act of de-shelling and eating pistachios one by one slows consumption, allowing one to feel full faster after having eaten less.

The shell of the pistachio is naturally a beige color, but it is sometimes dyed red or green in commercial pistachios. Originally, dye was applied by importers to hide stains on the shells caused when the nuts were picked by hand. Most pistachios are now picked by machine and the shells remain unstained. Like other members of the Anacardiaceae family (which includes poison ivy, sumac, mango, and cashew) pistachios contain urushiol, an irritant that can cause allergic reactions.

In California, almost all female pistachio trees are the cultivar Kerman. Bulk container shipments of pistachio nuts are prone to self-heating and spontaneous combustion because of their high fat and low water content. Pistachio nut production in 2005 was 501 thousand metric tons.


Turmeric is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. It is native to tropical South Asia. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes, and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. They are dried and ground into a deep orange powder commonly used as a spice in curries. Its active ingredient is curcumin which has a distinctly earthy, slightly bitter, slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell.

Although most usage of Turmeric is in the form of powder from the roots, in some regions the leaves are used to wrap and cook food especially when on picnic in a field but at homes as well. This obviously takes place in areas where turmeric grown, since the leaves are used freshly picked. This imparts a distinct flavor but has medicinal value as well.

In Ayurvedic practices, turmeric has many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts, burns and bruises. It is also used as an antibacterial agent.
It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement, which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments.

In the latter half of the 20th century, curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. In 2004, the U.S. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer, multiple myeloma, Alzheimer’s, and colorectal cancer. The British Journal of Cancer reported a study that showed that curcumin can kill esophageal cancer cells in vitro. Curcumin also enhances the production of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor which supports nerve growth.

Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. The paste is also applied to the bride and groom before marriage in some parts of India, where it is believed to give a glow to the skin and keep harmful bacteria away from the body.


Blackcurrant is a small shrub growing to three to six feet tall. The plant is distinguished by a strong fragrance from leaves and stems. The fruit is an edible berry, very dark purple in color with a glossy skin.

During World War II, most fruits rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, became almost impossible to obtain in the United Kingdom. Since blackcurrant berries are a rich source of vitamin C, blackcurrant cultivation was encouraged by the British government. From 1942 on, almost the entire British blackcurrant crop was made into blackcurrant syrup and distributed to the nation’s children free, giving rise to the lasting popularity of blackcurrant flavorings in Britain.

Blackcurrant cordial is often mixed with cider to make a drink called Cider & Black available at pubs. Adding a small amount of blackcurrant juice to Guinness is preferred by some to heighten the taste of the popular beer. Japan imports $3.6 million in New Zealand blackcurrants for uses as dietary supplements, snacks and food products. In Russia, sweetened vodka may also be infused with blackcurrant leaves or berries, making a deep yellowish-green beverage with a sharp flavor and astringent taste.

In the United States, Blackcurrant flavor is rather rare in candies and jellies compared to UK candies. The syrup mixed with white wine is called Kir or Kir Royale when mixed with Champagne. Blackcurrants are used in cooking because their astringent nature brings out flavor in many sauces, meat dishes and desserts. The whole blackcurrant stem with fruit can be frozen, then shaken vigorously. The tops and tails are broken off and fruit can be separated easily.


Negative affectivity is a general dimension of subjective distress and unpleasurable engagement that subsumes a variety of aversive mood states, including anger, contempt, disgust, guilt, fear, and nervousness. Individuals high in negative affectivity are characterized by distress, un-pleasurable engagement, and nervousness. Low negative affect is characterised by a state of calmness and serenity.

It has been defined as a mood-dispositional dimension that reflects pervasive individual differences in negative emotionality and self-concept. People who express high negative affectivity view themselves and a variety of aspects of the world around them in generally negative terms. Negative affectivity may influence the relationships between variables in organizational research.

Negative affectivity represents an affective state dimension. Research has demonstrated that individuals differ in negative emotional reactivity. Trait negative affectivity roughly corresponds to the dominant personality factor of anxiety and neuroticism within the major personality traits. Research shows that negative affectivity relates to different classes of variables: Self-reported stress and poor coping skills, health complaints, and frequency of unpleasant events.

Individuals high in negative affect will exhibit, on average, higher levels of anxiety and dissatisfaction, and tend to focus on the unpleasant aspects of themselves, the world, the future, and other people. In fact, the content similarities between these affective traits and life satisfaction have led some researchers to view negative affectivity and life satisfaction as specific indicators of the broader construct of subjective well-being.


Polarity therapy is a synthesis of ancient Eastern and alternative medicine health care ideas, centered on the concept of a human energy field. Using touch, verbal interaction, exercise, nutrition and other methods, practitioners of polarity therapy seek to balance and restore the natural flow of energy which, it is claimed, flows from the universe and into the body through the chakras. The aim is to re-establish “balance”. In addition to polarity bodywork, specific polarity yoga exercises, counseling/positive thinking, and nutritional recommendations are claimed to enhance vitality.

Advocates and practitioners of PT claim that a subtle, invisible and intangible energetic system is the substrate for all phenomena. According to proponents, if the energetic flow is corrected and restored to its original design, the form will follow. Further, they claim that blockages in the flow of energy lead to pain and disease (directly contradicting the germ theory of disease), or be experienced as stuck emotions and lack of vitality. They claim that this is similar to the measurable and quantifiable electromagnetic bond between electron and proton that forms atoms, a claim which is not scientific, but pseudoscience. There is no scientific basis for this belief, nor any reproducible measurements of this system.

Polarity therapists claim to work with the reciprocal, complementary or “polarized” forces, which they describe with the traditional Chinese words yin and yang. Although the concept of polarity implies two forces in opposition, these dualities are said by some to be mediated by a subtle third neutral factor, leading to the idea that phenomena are essentially triune in nature. In Ayurveda, the three factors are known as Rajas, Tamas, and Satva.

Polarity therapy is often connected with other forms of alternative medicine, such as Oriental medicine, Ayurveda, craniosacral therapy and osteopathy, which all claim to explore the subtle energetic factors in health conditions from their particular cultural viewpoints. Polarity therapy has four distinct areas of technique, by which proponents believe life force energy can be influenced: touch (massage, acupuncture), stretching and exercise, diet, and mental-emotional process. Polarity practitioners registered with the American Polarity Therapy Association should be knowledgeable in all four areas. However, although most current APTA trainings cover the standard curriculum, some practitioners have different interpretations.