Incidence

The lovebug, also known as the honeymoon fly or kissingbug (Plecia nearctica), is a member of the family of march flies. It is a small flying insect common to parts of Central America and the southeastern United States, especially along the Gulf Coast.

During and after mating, adult pairs remain coupled, even in flight, for several days. Lovebug flights can number in the hundreds of thousands. The slow, drifting movement of the insects is almost reminiscent of snow fall except the flies also rise up into the air reaching altitudes of over one thousand feet. Two major flights occur each year, first in late spring, then again in late summer.

The species’ reputation as a public nuisance is due not to any bite or sting but to its slightly acidic body chemistry. Because airborne lovebugs can exist in enormous numbers near highways, they die en masse on automobile windshields, hoods, and radiator grills when the vehicles travel at high speeds. If left for more than an hour or two, the remains become dried and extremely difficult to remove.

The lovebug was first described in 1940. At that time, the incidence of lovebugs was most common in Texas and Louisiana. However, by the end of the 20th century the species had spread heavily to all areas bordering the Gulf of Mexico. Urban legend holds that love bugs are the result of a University of Florida genetics experiment gone wrong,

Value

Quality time is an informal reference to time spent with loved ones, close family, partners or friends. The time spent is in some way important, special, productive or profitable. It is time that is set aside for paying full and undivided attention to the person and matter at hand.

It may also refer to time spent performing some favored activity such a hobby or packing suitcases to move across the world with loved ones. The opportunity to experience quality time, or the actual time available to enjoy quality time, is often limited. However, this is outweighed by the importance, intensity or value attached to events or interactions which occur during quality time.

Quality time therefore has a degree of emotional or social quality which other aspects of personal life may lack. Busy parents may also use the term to justify the limited amount of overall time they spend with their children.

In terms of critique, it is occasionally pointed out that true quality time cannot be rigidly scheduled, but that quality moments can happen if there are sufficient opportunities for sharing and that each adapts to the other’s needs and interests.

Inquiry

Bioethics is the philosophical study of the controversies brought about by advances in biology and medicine. It has addressed a broad spectrum of human inquiry, ranging from debates over the boundaries of life, allocation of health care resources, and the right to turn down medical care for religious or cultural reasons.

Bioethicists often disagree over the precise limits of their discipline, debating whether it should concern the ethical evaluation of all questions involving biology and medicine, or only a subset of these questions. Some bioethicists narrow ethical evaluation to the morality of medical treatment or technological innovation, while others broaden the scope of ethical evaluation to include the morality of all actions that might help or harm organisms capable of feeling fear and pain.

Many religious communities have their own histories of inquiry into bioethical issues and have developed rules and guidelines on how to deal with these issues. Some religious perspectives widen the outlook by attending to additional values that are often absent from ethics such as generosity, altruism, sacrifice, compassion, community, and love. Often, religious values will lead to reinterpretations of secular ideals such as informed consent. Some find that religious views can give a broader, perhaps even utopian, view of what can be hoped for in caring.

Triangulation

Psychology depicts love as a cognitive and social phenomenon. Psychologists have formulated a triangular theory of love and argued that love has three different components: intimacy, commitment, and passion.

Intimacy is a form in which two people share confidences and various details of their personal lives, and is usually shown in friendships and romantic love affairs. Commitment, on the other hand, is the expectation that the relationship is permanent. Passionate love is shown in infatuation as well as romantic love. All forms of love are viewed as varying combinations of these three components.

Following developments in electrical theories such as Coulomb’s law, which showed that positive and negative charges attract, analogs in human life were developed, such as “opposites attract.” Research on the nature of human mating has generally found this not to be true when it comes to character and personality, and that people tend to like people similar to themselves.

However, in a few unusual and specific domains, such as immune systems, it seems that humans prefer others who are unlike themselves, since this will lead to a baby that has the best of both worlds.

Some Western authorities disaggregate into two main components, the altruistic and the narcissistic. This view is represented in the works of Scott Peck, whose work in the field of applied psychology explored the definitions of love and evil. Peck maintains that love is a combination of the “concern for the spiritual growth of another,” and simple narcissism. In combination, love is an activity, not simply a feeling.

Purification

A seraph is one of a class of celestial beings mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. Jewish imagery perceived them as having human form, and in that way they passed into the ranks of Christian angels. In the angelic hierarchy, seraphim represent the highest rank of angels. The Seraphim make their first appearance in the Book of Revelation.

As they were developed in the theology, seraphim are envisioned as beings of pure light having direct communication with God. They resonate with the fire symbolically attached to both purification and love. Saraph in all its forms is used to connote a burning, fiery state. Seraphim, as classically depicted, can be identified by their having six wings radiating from the angel’s face at the center. The Seraphim and the Cherubim are, in Christian theology, two separate types of angels. The descriptions of the Seraphim, Cherubim and Ophanim are often similar, but still distinguishable.

The seraphim took on a mystic role in Pico della Mirandola’s Oration on the Dignity of Man (1487), the epitome of Renaissance humanism. Pico took the fiery Seraphim – “they burn with the fire of charity” – as the highest models of human aspiration, in the first flush of optimistic confidence in the human capacity that is the coinage of the Renaissance. “In the light of intelligence, meditating upon the Creator in His work, and the work in its Creator, we shall be resplendent with the light of the Cherubim. If we burn with love for the Creator only, his consuming fire will quickly transform us into the flaming likeness of the Seraphim.”

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Effort

Love bombing is the deliberate show of affection or friendship by an individual or a group of people toward another individual. Some have asserted that this action may be motivated in part by the desire to recruit, convert or otherwise influence others.

Critics of cults often cite love bombing as one of the features that may identify an organization as a cult. When used by critics, the phrase is defined to mean affection that is feigned or with an ulterior motive that is used to reduce the subject’s resistance to recruitment.

The term was popularized by psychology professor Margaret Singer. In her 1996 book, Cults in Our Midst, she describes the technique as a coordinated effort, usually under the direction of leadership, that involves long-term members’ flooding recruits and newer members with flattery, verbal seduction, affection, and lots of attention to their every remark. Love bombing, or the offer of instant companionship, is a deceptive ploy accounting for many successful recruitment drives.

Members of some groups use the phrase themselves to mean a genuine expression of friendship, fellowship, interest, or concern.

Disposition

Agapism professes that love  should be the sole ultimate value and that all other values are derived from it, or that the sole moral imperative is to love. Theological agapism holds that our love of God is expressed by loving our fellow man. As the ethics of love, agapism indicates that we should do the most loving thing in each situation, letting love determine our obligation rather than rules. Alternatively, given a set of rules, agapism indicates to follow those rules which produce the most love.

The American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce used the word agapism for the view that creative love is operative in the cosmos. Drawing from the Swedenborgian ideas of Henry James, Peirce held that it involves a love which expresses itself in a devotion to cherishing and tending to people or things other than oneself, as a parent may do for offspring, and as God does especially for the unloving, whereby the loved ones may learn.

Peirce regarded this process as a mode of evolution of the cosmos and its parts, and he called it agapism, wherein: “The good result is here brought to pass, first, by the bestowal of spontaneous energy by the parent upon the offspring, and, second, by the disposition of the latter to catch the general idea of those about it and thus to subserve the general purpose.”

Heroism

Dāna is a Sanskrit term meaning generosity or giving. In Buddhism, it also refers to the practice of cultivating generosity. As a formal religious act it is directed specifically to a monastic or spiritually-developed person. In Buddhist thought, it has the effect of purifying and transforming the mind of the giver.

Buddhists believe that giving, without seeking something in return, leads to greater spiritual wealth and reduces acquisitive impulses that ultimately lead to further suffering. Generosity developed through giving leads to being reborn in happy states and material wealth. Alternatively, lack of giving leads to unhappy states and poverty.

The quality of giving is believed to be one of the virtues perfected over numerous lifetimes by Shakyamuni Buddha in his bodhisattva phase, before the final culmination into Nirvana, after he had purified obscurations and released attachment. This is symbolized by the sacrifice of his own body when he has nothing else to offer an unexpected guest in the Jataka folktale entitled Shasha Jataka, where Shakyamuni Buddha is born as a rabbit, and unable to present any other food to a Brahmin come home, roasted himself in a fire.

A similar message is given by the story of King Shibi in the Jataka Mala, who having given away all his wealth, was still moved enough by small insects hovering around him, and inflicted several wounds on his body to feed the mosquitoes. In another narrative from the same text, the bodhisattva throws himself in front of a hungry tigress, who otherwise was on the verge of consuming her own cubs. This is however not the only instance of the Buddha-To-Be sacrificing his physical body partly or fully and numerous tales abound in Buddhist Canonical literature illustrating this theme.

In the ancient Samadhiraja-Sutra, Shakyamuni Buddha’s principal disciple Ananda asks how a bodhisattva can cheerfully suffer the loss of his limbs and not feel any pain when he mutilates himself for the good of others. Shakyamuni Buddha explained that intense compassion for humankind and the love of Bodhi (spiritual awakening), sustain and inspire a bodhisattva towards heroism, just as worldly people are inclined to enjoy sensual pleasures even when their bodies are burning with fever.

Ultimately, the practice culminates in one of the Perfections, the Perfection of Giving. This can be characterized by unattached and unconditional generosity, giving and letting go.

Gift

The rose is a perennial flower shrub or vine that contains over 100 species and comes in a variety of colors. The species form a group of erect shrubs and climbing or trailing plants, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. It is a common error to refer to roses as having thorns. Thorns are modified branches or stems, whereas these sharp protrusions on a rose are modified epidermal tissue. Most are native to Asia, with smaller numbers of species native to Europe, North America, and northwest Africa.

Attar of rose is the steam-extracted essential oil from rose flowers that has been used in perfumes for centuries. Rose water, made from the rose oil, is widely used in Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. The French are known for their rose syrup, most commonly made from an extract of rose petals. In the United States, this French rose syrup is used to make rose scones.

Rose hips are occasionally made into jam, jelly, and marmalade, or are brewed for tea, primarily for their high Vitamin C content. They are also pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup. Rose hips are also used to produce Rose hip seed oil, which is used in skin products and some makeup products.

It has always been valued for its beauty and has a long history of symbolism. The ancient Greeks and Romans identified the rose with their goddesses of love referred to as Aphrodite and Venus. In Rome a wild rose would be placed on the door of a room where secret or confidential matters were discussed. A bouquet of red roses is often used to show love. It is used as a Valentine’s Day gift in many countries.

A red rose, often held in a hand, is a symbol of socialism or social democracy. It is used as a symbol by British, Irish, French, and other European labour, socialist or social democratic parties. This originated when the red rose was used as a badge by marchers in the May 1968 street protests in Paris. The White Rose was a World War II non violent resistance group in Germany.

Affection

Agape is one of several Greek words translated into English as love. The word has been used in different ways by a variety of contemporary and ancient sources, including Biblical authors. Many have thought that this word represents divine, unconditional, self-sacrificing, active, volitional, and thoughtful love.

Greek philosophers at the time of Plato and other ancient authors have used forms of the word to denote love of a spouse or family, or affection for a particular activity. This is in contrast to philia, an affection that could denote either brotherhood or generally non-sexual affection, and eros, an affection of a sexual nature.

The term agape is rarely used in ancient manuscripts, but was used by the early Christians to refer to the self-sacrificing love of God for humanity, which they were committed to reciprocating and practicing towards God and among one another.

The word has been expounded on by many Christian writers in a specifically Christian context. Thomas Jay Oord has defined agape as an intentional response to promote well-being when responding to that which has generated ill-being. Oord also argues that agape is not the only form of Christian love. Philia and eros can also be forms of love appropriate for Christians to express.

Agape received a broader usage under later Christian writers as the word that specifically denoted Christian love or charity. The New Testament provides a number of definitions and examples of agape that generally expand on the meanings derived from ancient texts, denoting brotherly love, love of one’s spouse or children, and the love of God for all people.

In the New Testament the noun agape is often used to describe God’s love. However, the verb form agapao is at times used in a negative sense, where it retains its more general meaning of affection rather than divine love. The word agape in its plural form is used in the New Testament to describe a meal or feast eaten by early Christians. It is sometimes believed to be either related to the Eucharist, or another term used for the Eucharist.